You Look Like the Nabi
Born in the month of Sha’baan or Ramadaan of the third year   after the hijrah, his father, Ali (radiallahu anhu), intended to call him Harb (war). However, his maternal grandfather, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) named him Hasan. His physical features, particularly the upper half of his body, had a very strong semblance with Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Some narrations   indicate that his upper half and his brother Husain (radiallahu anhu)’s lower half resembled Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). In this regard, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Hasan is from me and Husain is from Ali.”  While Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) was the khaleefah, he one day led the salaah and then left the masjid with Ali (radiallahu anhu). On the way, they saw Hasan (radiallahu anhu) playing with the other children. Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) picked him up, placed him on his neck and said, “I swear that you look like the Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and not Ali.” Ali (radiallahu anhu) smiled when he heard this.
O Allah, I Love Him!
Baraa (radiallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said about Hasan (radiallahu anhu), “O Allah! I love him, so (I beseech you) love him and whoever loves him.”  Usaamah, the son of Zaid bin Haarithah (radiallahu anhuma) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would take him and Hasan (radiallahu anhu) and say, “O Allah! I love them, so (I beseech you) love them and whoever loves them.” In other narrations, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) uttered these words in relation to Hasan and his younger brother, Husain (radiallahu anhuma).
Ya’laa bin Murrah (radiallahu anhu) narrated that on one occasion Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma) ran to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) while he was with a group of his Sahaabah (radiallahu anhum). When they reached him, he picked them up, kissed them and said, “Love them because I love them.” He then added, “O people! Children are a source of miserliness, cowardice and intolerance.” Some versions have the word mahzanah (grief) instead of majhalah (intolerance).
Once, Rasulullah was delivering a khutbah when Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma) came running to him. Due to their tender age at that time, they stumbled a few times before reaching him. Upon reaching Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), he descended from the mimbar, picked them up and said, “Allah spoke the truth. Your wealth and your children are only a test.  I saw these two (boys) and could not constrain myself.” He then continued with the khutbah.
Hasan Asked First
Ali (radiallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) spent the night with them. Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma) were sleeping. During the course of the night, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) woke up and asked for water. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) got him some water and as he was giving it to him, Husain (radiallahu anhu), who was also awake by then, tired to take it. However, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) stopped him and gave the water to Hasan (radiallahu anhu) first. Observing this, Fatimah (radiallahu anha) asked Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), “It seems like you love Hasan more?” Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied, “No, (I love them equally). However, Hasan asked first.” He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) then said to Fatimah (radiallahu anha), “Me, you and these children will be in the same place on the Day of Qiyaamah.” The narrator said, “I think that he also mentioned Ali.”
Allow Me to Kiss . . .
‘Umair bin Ishaaq narrated that he was with Hasan (radiallahu anhu) when Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) came to him and said, “Allow me to kiss that part of your body which I saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) kissing. Thus, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) lifted his qamees (kurta) and allowed Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) to kiss his navel.
Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) said, “I saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sucking Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s tongue or his lips. Certainly the tongue or lips that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sucked will never be punished.”
An Excellent Rider
Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu anhuma) narrated that one day Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came outside carrying Hasan (radiallahu anhu) on his shoulders. A man nearby commented to Hasan (radiallahu anhu), “Boy, you are riding an excellent conveyance!” Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) responded, “And he is an excellent rider!”
The Leaders of the Youth in Jannah
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (radiallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Hasan and Husain will be the leaders of the youth in Jannah.”  According to the narration of Hudhaifa (radiallahu anhu), this was first told to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) by Jibreel (alaihis-salaam). “O Hudhaifa! Jibreel came to me and gave me the good news that Hasan and Husain will be the leaders of the youth in Jannah.”
Umar (radiallahu anhu)’s Acknowledgement
The Battle of Badr took place one year before Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s birth. This meant that he and his brother Husain (radiallahu anhu) were not supposed to receive the same stipends as the Sahaabah (radiallahu anhum) who participated in Badr. However, acknowledging their lofty status, Umar (radiallahu anhu) stipulated that their stipends should be no less than that of the Sahaabah (radiallahu anhum) who participated in Badr.
Please Go Home
‘Uthman (radiallahu anhu) also showed extreme love and respect for Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma). The day of ‘Uthman (radiallahu anhu)’s assassination is called Yawm-ud-Daar. On that tragic day, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) hung his sword around his neck and went to ‘Uthman (radiallahu anhu)’s house in order to defend him. However, fearing that Hasan (radiallahu anhu) may get injured or even loose his life, ‘Uthman (radiallahu anhu) beseeched him in the name of Allah to go home. Besides Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s safety, ‘Uthman (radiallahu anhu) was also considering ‘Ali (radiallahu anhu)’s feelings. Imagine ‘Ali (radiallahu anhu)’s grief if Hasan (radiallahu anhu) lost his life on that day.
Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiallahu anhuma)
Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiallahu anhuma) was a few years elder than Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma). Yet, whenever he saw them mounted on camels or horses, he would hold the reins and lead the way, regarding this as a favour from Allah.
I Feel Shy to Meet Allah
Ali (radiallahu anhu)’s son, Muhammad , narrated that Hasan (radiallahu anhu) said, “I feel shy to meet Allah without having walked to his house.” He therefore made twenty hajj walking all the way from Madinah. Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu anhuma) used to say, “I do not regret anything that I did not do in my youth except that I did not make hajj walking. Certainly, Hasan bin Ali (radiallahu anhuma) walked and made hajj twenty five times although the camels (that were to be sacrificed in Mina) were led with him. On three occasions, he shared all his wealth with Allah (i.e. he spent half his wealth in charity) to the extent that if he gave the leather sock, he kept the sandal.” According to the narration of Ibn Jud’aan, the above figure is fifteen, not twenty-five. Irrespective of which narration is more correct, they all speak volumes of Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s taqwa and ‘ibaadah.
Daily, upon performing salaat-ul-fajr in the masjid of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Hasan (radiallahu anhu) would remain seated in his musallaa engaging in dhikrullah until the sun had fully risen. During this period, senior members of the community would sit with him, engaging in discussion. Thereafter, he would visit the wives of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) who would occasionally present him with gifts. Having visited them, he would return to his home.
I Would Have Given You Even More
A man known as Abu Haroon narrated that they visited Madinah Munawwarah on their way for hajj. Thus, they visited Hasan (radiallahu anhu). When they left him, he sent to each one of them four hundred dirhams. Hence, they went back and informed him of their financial ease. He told them, “Do not reject my kindness. If my condition was better, this would have been too little for you (I would have given you even more).” He then explained that he gave them this assistance because “on the Day of Arafah, Allah boasts to the angels about his servants”.
On one occasion, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) heard a man next to him making du’aa to Allah for ten thousand dirhams. Hasan (radiallahu anhu) immediately got up, went home and sent the man ten thousand dirhams.
Better than One Month of I’tikaaf
Muhammad Al-Baaqir (rahimahullah) narrated that a man requested his grandfather, Husain (radiallahu anhu), for some assistance. Husain (radiallahu anhu) was observing i’tikaaf at that time and therefore excused himself. The man then requested Hasan (radiallahu anhu) for assistance. Hasan (radiallahu anhu) helped the man and said, “Fulfilling the need of my brother in deen is more beloved to me then observing i’tikaaf for a whole month.”
A Hundred Slave-Girls and a Thousand Dirhams Each
Muhammad bin Sireen (rahimahullah) narrated that often Hasan (radiallahu anhu) would reward a single person with one hundred thousand dirhams. Ibn Sireen (rahimahullah) also narrated that once, upon marrying a particular woman, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) sent her one hundred slave-girls and a thousand dirhams with each of them.
A Small Gift from a Parting Beloved
Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was married to a lady from the Khath’am tribe. When Ali (radiallahu anhu) was assassinated and Hasan was elected as his successor, she congratulated him saying, “May the khilaafah be pleasant for you.” This angered Hasan (radiallahu anhu). “Are you expressing joy at the killing of Ali?” he asked and then gave her three talaaqs. “That is not what I meant,” she cried, but it was too late; the damage was done. Shortly thereafter, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) sent her a gift of twenty thousand dirhams. Upon receiving it, she exclaimed, “A small gift from a parting beloved.” When Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was informed of this, he cried and then said, “I would have taken her back (I would have remarried her) if had not heard my father narrate from my grandfather that: When a man gives his wife three talaaqs, she is impermissible for him until she marries another man.”
On another occasion, he divorced two wives at the same time. One of them was from the Asad tribe and the other belonged to the Fazaar tribe. He then sent to each one of them ten thousand dirhams and a few containers of honey. When these gifts were presented to the wife from the Fazaar tribe, she made du’aa for Hasan (radiallahu anhu) and said, “May Allah give him a good reward.” On the contrary, when the other wife received the gifts, she said, “A small gift from a parting beloved.” Thus, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) took her back.
Misdaaq and Mitlaaq
Historians describe Hasan (radiallahu anhu) as misdaaq and mitlaaq. Misdaaq is a man who gives his wives huge dowries. Mitlaaq is a man who has divorced many women. Thus, some narrations indicate that he had married seventy women during his life. Others put the total number of his wives as ninety. He very rarely had less than four wives. Thus, Ali (radiallahu anhu) used to tell the people of Kufah “Do not marry your daughters to him because he gives too much talaaq. I fear that he may cause his wives tribes to hate us.” They would reply, “By Allah! Even if he proposes for our daughters every day, we will marry him to whomever he desires because we (also) wish to be related to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).” However, his nephew, Zain-ul-‘Aabideen (radiallahu anhu), narrated that “every woman he divorced loved him.”
Offspring of One Another
One day Ali (radiallahu anhu) asked Hasan (radiallahu anhu) to deliver a lecture in his presence. “I feel shy,” replied Hasan (radiallahu anhu), “to lecture while I see you.” Thus, Ali (radiallahu anhu) stood up and went to sit where Hasan (radiallahu anhu) could not see him. Thereafter, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) stood up and delivered a fluent and eloquent lecture. At the end of his lecture, Ali (radiallahu anhu) was heard commenting: “They are the offspring of one another.”
The Worst Word I Ever Heard From Him
Umair bin Ishaaq narrated that, “Nobody spoke in my presence and I desired him to continue speaking more than Hasan bin Ali (radiallahu anhu). I heard him utter a bad word only once. There was a dispute between Husain bin Ali (radiallahu anhu) and Amr bin Uthmaan and Hasan (radiallahu anhu) said, ‘He will not receive from us anything except what will spite his nose.’ This is the worst word I ever heard from him.”
I Will Meet You in the Court of Allah
‘Umair bin Ishaaq narrated that every Friday Marwaan would say bad things about Ali (radiallahu anhu) in his khutbah. His intention was to provoke Hasan (radiallahu anhu). However, he never succeeded; Hasan (radiallahu anhu) refused to respond. Eventually, Marwaan sent him a message. “I do not find a better example for you than that of a mule. It is asked ‘Who is your father?’ and it replies ‘My mother is a horse.” (He meant when asked ‘Who is your father’, you reply ‘My mother is the daughter of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam’) Hasan (radiallahu anhu) replied, “By Allah, I will not erase anything which you have said by swearing you. Instead, I will meet you in the court of Allah. Then, if you have spoken the truth, he will reward you. However, if you have lied, Allah’s revenge (on my behalf) is worse (than if I take revenge myself).”
It’s a Shame on You!
During a dispute between Hasan (radiallahu anhu) and Marwaan, the latter spoke very harshly. Hasan (radiallahu anhu) remained silent, not uttering a word while he spoke. Marwaan, who was still ranting, suddenly cleaned his nose with his right hand. This prompted Hasan (radiallahu anhu) to speak. “What’s wrong with you?” he reprimanded, “Do you not know that the right hand is for eating and the left hand is for istinja (and similar actions, like cleaning the nose)? It’s a shame on you!” This silenced Marwaan.
More Forbearance than This
When Hasan (radiallahu anhu) passed away, Husain (radiallahu anhu) saw Marwaan, the governor of Madinah crying. “Do you cry for him whereas you used to treat him in the manner you did?” Husain (radiallahu anhu) asked him. Pointing to a mountain, Marwaan responded, “I did it to a man who had more forbearance than this.” According to another narration, Marwaan was carrying the bier. Husain (radiallahu anhu) asked him, “Do you carry his bier whereas you used to treat him in the manner you did?” He replied, “I did it to a man whose forbearance was weightier than the mountains.”
You’re Going to Die, Young Man
إن المنية نازلة بك يا فتى    قدم لنفسك ما استطعت من التقى
أحباب قلبك في المقابر والبلى    أصبحت ذا فرح كأنك لا ترى
The above stanzas were inscribed on Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s ring. They translate as follows:
Forward as much taqwa as you can
You’re going to die, young man
So happy, it seems you are not seeing
That your friends, in their graves are perishing
Contentment with the Divine Decree
Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was told that Abu Dhar (radiallahu anhu) had said, “I prefer poverty over wealth and illness over good health.” His response was, “May Allah show mercy on Abu Dhar! However, my opinion is that one who relies on what Allah chooses for him will not desire anything other than what Allah chooses for him. This is the definition of contentment with the divine decree.”
Are You Going to Write . . .?
After abdicating from the khilaafah, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) used to receive an annual stipend of one hundred thousand dirhams from Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu). However, Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) would often give him four hundred thousand dirhams. One year, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) delayed in visiting Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) in order to receive his stipend. Due to extreme generosity, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was in dire need at that time. He therefore intended to write to Mu’aawiayh (radiallahu anhu) requesting him to send the stipend to him. That night, he dreamt of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). In his dream, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) asked him, “Are you going to write to a created being for the fulfillment of your need?” Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) then taught him a du’aa to read for the fulfillment of his need. He therefore abandoned his intention to write to Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu). In the meanwhile, Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) realised that Hasan  (radiallahu anhu) had not yet visited him. Thus, he sent him two hundred thousand dirhams (instead of only one hundred thousand dirhams). Hence, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) received his stipend without asking for it.
Allah Will Use Him
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) also said about Hasan (radiallahu anhu), “This son of mine is a sayyid (leader) and (one day) Allah will use him to reconcile two major groups of Muslims.”  This prediction materialized in the year 41AH when Hasan (radiallahu anhu) abdicated the khilaafah in favour of Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu), thus terminating all hostilities between his father’s supporters and those who supported Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu).
The Year of Jamaa’ah
When Ibn Muljam stabbed Ali (radiallahu anhu) and people realised that he was dying, they requested him to appoint a successor. He refused saying, “I will leave you the way Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) left you – without appointing a successor. If Allah desires good for you, He will unite you upon the best among you just as He had united you upon the best among you after Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).” Ali (radiallahu anhu) passed away later in the day. It was the 17th of Ramadaan, 40AH. The janaazah salaah was led by Hasan (radiallahu anhu) because he was Ali (radiallahu anhu)’s eldest son. Ali (radiallahu anhu) was thereafter buried in the Dar-ul-Imaarah in Kufah. After the burial, Qays bin Sa’d bin ‘Ubaadah (radiallahu anhu) stepped forward and said to Hasan (radiallahu anhu), “Stretch your hand so that I may give you the bay’ah (so that I may pledge my obedience to you) on condition that you abide to the Book of Allah and the sunnah of His Nabi.” Although Hasan (radiallahu anhu) did not say anything, Qays (radiallahu anhu) gave him the bay’ah and the rest of the people followed suit.
Qays bin Sa’d (radiallahu anhu) was the ameer of Azerbaijan and had forty thousand soldiers under his command. Upon Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s appointment as khaleefah, he tried persuading him to lead an army to fight Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) and the army of Shaam. Hasan (radiallahu anhu) had no intention of fighting. Hence, he dismissed Qays (radiallahu anhu) and appointed ‘Ubaidullah bin Abbaas in his place. Nonetheless, there were many others like Qays (radiallahu anhu) and they eventually forced Hasan (radiallahu anhu) to change his mind. A huge army was formed. The muqaddimah (vanguard) alone comprised of twelve thousand men.
The army was now marching towards Shaam. Upon reaching Madaain, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) halted with the entire army, but sent the muqaddimah ahead. Sometime later, while they were camped in Madaain, they heard a person shouting that Qays bin Sa’d had been killed. These shouts triggered chaos. The army was raging with anger. They began looting each other. Some of them looted Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s and snatched the carpet he was sitting on. Worse than that, while Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was mounting his conveyance, one of his soldiers stabbed him.
These events disheartened Hasan (radiallahu anhu). He lost all confidence in the people who claimed to be his supporters. Thus, he decided to negotiate with Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) who was leading the army of Shaam and had already reached Maskin, a place in ‘Iraq.
Mu’aawiayah (radiallahu anhu) received Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s letter, read it and sent ‘Abdullah bin ‘Aamir and ‘Abdur Rahman bin Samurah to negotiate with him. Upon meeting Hasan (radiallahu anhu), they promised him all the money he desired. Accordingly, he stipulated five million dirhams  from the bayt-ul-maal (public treasury) in Kufah and the annual kharaaj of Basrah.  He also stipulated that he be designated as Mu’aawiayah (radiallahu anhu)’s successor and that members of the opposition stop criticizing Ali (radiallahu anhu). Mu’aawiyah accepted all his conditions and continued fulfilling them until Hasan (radiallahu anhu) passed away. However, the citizens of Basrah refused to pay their annual kharaaj to Hasan (radiallahu anhu). In exchange, Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) agreed to give Hasan (radiallahu anhu) seven million dirhams annually. (This was besides the annual stipend of one hundred thousand dirhams.) In addition, he used to give Hasan (radiallahu anhu) many other gifts whenever Hasan (radiallahu anhu) used to visit him.
Another Version
‘Amr bin Dinaar (radiallahu anhu) narrated that Mu’aawiayah (radiallahu anhu) was aware of Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s aversion to fitnah (chaos). Thus, when Ali (radiallahu anhu) passed away, he sent a representative to negotiate with Hasan (radiallahu anhu). He also guaranteed Hasan (radiallahu anhu) that if he left the world while Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was alive, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) would be his successor. Once Hasan (radiallahu anhu) was confident that . . . Ibn Ja’far narrated that he was with Hasan (radiallahu anhu). He stood up in order to leave. At that moment, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) tugged his clothes and told him to sit down. “I have an idea,” he said, “And I wish that you would agree with me. I have decided to return to Madinah, settle there and leave this issue (of khilaafah) to Mu’aawiyah. Certainly the unrest is dragging too long, too much blood has been spilled, family ties have been severed and women have been widowed.” Ibn Ja’far concurred with Hasan (radiallahu anhu). He said, “May Allah reward you on behalf of the ummah of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). I am with you.” Hasan (radiallahu anhu) then sent him to call Husain (radiallahu anhu). The latter was not pleased with his brother’s intentions. This angered Hasan (radiallahu anhu). Thus, Husain (radiallahu anhu) relented saying, “You are Ali (radiallahu anhu)’s eldest son and his khaleefah. We are under your command.”
A Third Version
Sufyaan narrated from Abu Moosa that he heard Hasan Basri saying that Hasan bin Ali (radiallahu anhu) approached Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) with huge armies like mountains. Seeing them, ‘Amr bin ‘Aas (radiallahu anhu) commented, “I see armies that will not leave until they kill people who share the same zeal as them.” “Hey ‘Amr,” responded Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu), “If this army kills that army and that army kills this army, who will help me see to the welfare of the rest of the Muslims? Who will help me fulfill the needs of their women and the weak among them?” It was then that he sent two men from the Quraysh – ‘Abdur Rahman bin Samurah and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Aamir bin Kurayz – to negotiate with Hasan (radiallahu anhu). At the end of the negotiations, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) recalled that he heard Abu Bakrah (radiallahu anhu) narrating that he heard Rasulullah (sallahu alaihi wasallam) saying, “This son of mine is a sayyid (leader) and (one day) Allah will use him to reconcile two major groups of Muslims.”
One of the Rightly-Guided Khulafaa
There are exactly thirty years between Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s demise and Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s abdication. This would mean that Hasan (radiallahu anhu) is one of the rightly guided khulafaa because Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Khilaafah will last for thirty years after my death.”
Insults and Tolerance
Not everybody in Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s army was pleased with his decision to abdicate. They would often address him as ‘Aar-al-Mu’mineen (Embarrassment of the Believers). In response, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) would say, “Aar is better than naar.” (Embarrassment in the world is better than fire in the Hereafter.)
Maalik bin Damrah addressed him as مُسَخّمَ وُجوهِ الْمؤمِنين (One Who Besmirched the Faces of the Believers). Hasan (radiallahu anhu) did not get angry. Instead, he patiently explained his reasons for making peace with Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu). Another man called him مُذِلّ الْمُؤمنين (Disgracer of the Believers). “No,” he replied, “(I did not disgrace the believers.) In contrast, I disdained killing you for kingdom.”
I Feared
On another occasion, he explained his standpoint in the words “. . . I feared that on the Day of Qiyaamah, seventy or eighty thousand people, maybe more, maybe less, with blood oozing from their jugulars, would appeal to Allah for assistance in avenging their blood.”
People Claim
Sometime after the abdication, Jubayr bin Nufayr mentioned to Hasan (radiallahu anhu) that, “People claim that you desire the khilaafah.” He replied, “The heads of the Arabs were in my hands. They made peace with whomever I made peace and they waged war with whomever I waged war. I then relinquished the khilaafah for Allah’s pleasure. Having done that, would I instigate fitnah (anarchy) with the goats of the people of Hijaaz?”
If He Saw this Dream
In a dream, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) saw the words قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ written between his eyes. He felt happy. However, the great scholar of Madinah – rated by many as the greatest Tabi’ie – Sa’eed bin Al-Musayyib (radiallahu anhu) interpreted it as a sign of his imminent demise. His interpretation was correct. Hasan (radiallahu anhu) passed away a few days later.
I’ve Been Poisoned
‘Umair bin Ishaaq narrated that he and another man from the Quraysh visited Hasan (radiallahu anhu). After a little while, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) went to the toilet. When he returned, he said, “I excreted a piece of my stomach and I inspected it with a stick. I’ve been poisoned many times, but never like this.” Umair and his colleague left after a short while. When they returned the following day, he was already experiencing the difficulties associated with death. A short while later Husain (radiallahu anhu) entered, sat next to Hasan (radiallahu anhu) –beside his head – and the following discussion ensued.
Husain:    “Brother, who did this?”
Hasan:    “Do you want to kill him?”
Husain:    “Yes.”
Hasan:    “If he is the one I suspect, Allah’s revenge is much severer. If not, I wouldn’t want you to kill an innocent person for my sake.”
A Creation of Allah that I Have Never Seen Before
A man visited Hasan (radiallahu anhu) before he passed away. “O Abu Muhammad,” he said, “Why are you so anxious? The moment your soul leaves your body, you will join your parents, ‘Ali and Fatimah, your grandparents, the Nabi and Khadeejah, your paternal uncles, Hamzah and Ja’far, your maternal uncles, Qaasim, Tayyib, Mutahhar and Ibrahim and your mother’s sisters, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom and Zaynab.” This lifted Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s spirits. According to another narration, these words were uttered by Husain (radiallahu anhu). This narration adds that when Husain kept quiet, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) said, “I am entering something like which I have never entered before. I see a creation of Allah like what I have never seen before.” Husain (radiallahu anhu) burst into tears when he heard this.
‘Aa-isha (radiallahu anha) Consented
Before Hasan (radiallahu anhu) passed away, he delegated Husain (radiallahu anhu) to bury him alongside Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). He also cautioned him that if he feared any trouble and bloodshed, he should bury him in the Baqee’. Since Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s blessed grave is in ‘Aa-isha (radiallahu anha)’s room, burial alongside Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would not be possible without her permission. Therefore, Hasan (radiallahu anhu) also sent a messenger to seek her consent. She consented instantly. “Of course,” she said, “it is an honour.”
By now, however, Marwaan was no longer the governor of Madinah. He was dismissed by Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu). Thinking that he may regain Mu’aawiayh (radiallahu anhu)’s favour, he vehemently opposed the burial of Hasan (radiallahu anhu) alongside Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). He and other members of the Banu Umayyah took up their arms indicating their willingness to shed blood in order to prevent Hasan (radiallahu anhu) being buried next to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). “Will Hasan be buried in the blessed chamber whereas ‘Uthman was buried in the Baqee’?” they argued. Angered, Husain (radiallahu anhu) and his aides also took up their arms. Fearing a crisis, Sa’d bin Abi Waqqaas, Abu Hurairah, Jaabir and Ibn ‘Umar (radiallahu anhum) convinced Husain (radiallahu anhu) to lay down his arms and bury his brother in the Baqee’ (cemetery of Madinah). Jaabir (radiallahu anhu) told him, “Fear Allah! Your brother would not love what you are thinking, so bury him in the Baqee’ with his mother.” Accepting their advice, Husain (radiallahu anhu) relented and buried Hasan (radiallahu anhu) in the Baqee’ –close to his mother (radiallahu anha).
O People, Cry!
On the day of Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s demise, Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) stood on the roof of the masjid of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and shouted on the top of his voice, “O people, cry! Today, the beloved of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has passed away.”
Ja’far As-Saadiq narrated that ‘Ali, Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhum) passed away at the age of fifty eight. However, the more correct opinion is that he was forty-seven years old when he passed away. Dhahabi noted in his Siyar-al-A’laam that those who narrate the first opinion from Ja’far As-Saadiq have erred. He too maintained that Hasan (radiallahu anhum) passed away at the age of of forty-seven.
Who Poisoned Him?
There is no conclusive answer to this question. You would understand from the last discussion between Hasan and Husain (radiallahu anhuma) that although Hasan (radiallahu anhu) had his suspicions, he was not sure. Thus, he did not inform Husain (radiallahu anhu) who he suspected. Nevertheless, there are a few theories.
Some people claim that Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) had instigated one of Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s servants to poison him. Thus, is extremely far-fetched. Mu’aawiyah (radiallahu anhu) is a Sahaabi. It seems most unlikely that he would connive to kill the grandson of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Ibn Katheer has refuted this claim in his widely celebrated Al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah.
Another theory is that Mu’aawiayah (radiallahu anhu)’s son Yazeed had instigated Ja’dah bint Al-Ash’ath (who was married to Hasan radiallahu anhu) to do so. “Poison Hasan and I will marry you after his death,” he promised her. However, when Hasan (radiallahu anhu) passed away, he sent her a message, “We never desired you for Hasan. Would we desire you for ourselves?” Ibn Katheer has refuted this claim also.
‘Abdullah bin Hasan narrated that, “Hasan (radiallahu anhu) had married many women. (Seventy or ninety, as previously mentioned.) Although, hardly any of them lasted with him, it is also true that hardly any of them disliked him. It is said that this is why he was poisoned . . .” This is now a third theory.
Seconds Before
Abu Haazim (radiallahu anhu) narrated that he was present for Hasan (radiallahu anhu)’s janaazah salaah. Husain (radiallahu anhu) poked Sa’eed bin ‘Aas (the governor of Madinah) in the neck and said, “Lead the salaah, but remember that you would not do so if it was not a sunnah.” Hearing this, Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) said that he heard Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) say, “Whoever loves them loves me. Whoever hates them hates me.”   We conclude this article with these words of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).
O Allah, guide us to love you, your Rasul, his Ahl-ul-Bayt (family) and his Sahaabah. O Allah, guide us to actions that will earn us your love and the love of your Rasul. O Allah, resurrect us on the Day of Qiyaamah in the company of your Rasul, his Ahl-ul-Bayt and his Sahaabah, aamen.

و صل اللهم و سلّم على نبينا محمد و على آله و أصحابه أجمعين و الحمد لله رب العلمين
Muhammed Karolia
Al-Jaami’ah Al-Mahmoodiah
Persida, Springs
8 Rajab 1434
19 May 2013